Fallopian tubes are two small tubes that connect the uterus to the ovaries where a sperm and an egg meet during fertilization. Blocked tubes are usually a complication of chronic Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID), surgery or abortion and mainly lead to infertility.
Doctors get to know that your tubes are blocked after carrying out a specialized X-ray test called a hysterosalpingography (HSG) where a coloured dye is injected in the uterus and tubes, then images taken to see distribution of the dye in the tubes.
Either one or both tubes may be blocked and depending on the cause, nature and extent of the blockage, different solutions exist. In case only one tube is blocked, or both are partially blocked, pregnancy is possible; so, use of fertility drugs is recommended.
If both are blocked, laparoscopic surgery on tubes or to cut bands kinking them is recommended. Water mixed with drugs can also be used to correct minor obstruction in a procedure called hydrotubation.
Note, however, that success of conception following all these procedures is not always guaranteed and In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) where a fertilized egg is implanted directly in the uterus will be helpful.
What does it mean to have an abnormal pap?
I went for a pap smear and I was told I had an abnormal pap. I know it could mean I have cancer but what exactly should I expect?
The Pap smear also called the Papanicolau smear or cervical smear is a screening test mainly for early stages of cancer of the cervix. The test involves a healthcare worker ‘harvesting’ cells from the cervix and examining them under a microscope.
An abnormal pap usually means that the cells analyzed exhibit abnormal features suggestive of infections or early changes to cancer of cervix. The results range from those of uncertain significance to clear-cut cancer depending on ratio of abnormal to normal cells.
Low grade abnormal paps may resolve spontaneously while others may progress to cancer. However, extra vigilance is needed in all cases of abnormal results in which case a repeat pap or direct visualization of cervix (colposcopy) may be beneficial.
It’s recommended routinely in women between the ages of 20 and 70 at intervals of one to five years and where it’s done routinely, cancer of cervix has greatly reduced.